The Bush administration informed Congress in January 2008 that the United States could cease all cooperation with India if India lit a nuclear device. The government also stated that it had no intention of helping India design, build or operate sensitive nuclear technologies by transferring dual-use goods.  The statements were considered sensitive in India, as the debate over the agreement in India could have topple the government of Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. The Foreign Office had asked that they remain secret even though they were not classified.  Foreign Minister Condoleezza Rice had also stated in public testimony to the foreign affairs body of the House of Representatives that any agreement must be “fully compatible with the obligations of the Hyde Act.”  Richard Boucher, Assistant Secretary of State for South and Central Asian Affairs, and former Assistant Secretary of State for Legislative Affairs Jeffrey Bergner also stated that the agreement would be in accordance with the Hyde Act.  Of course, this legal distinction is less marked at the international level, with the executive agreements of Congress and the Article II treaties being considered equivalent. It is important to note, however, that the conclusion of a 123 agreement does not require the United States to export nuclear technologies; it only allows these exports. Growing concerns about nuclear safety have diverted industrialized countries from their long dependence on nuclear energy. However, for developing countries such as India, the choice between one energy source and another is not so easy, given the growing demand for energy and the persistent challenges for development. Priority should therefore be given to the development of safe mechanisms for the use of nuclear energy. India and the European Union (EU) signed a nuclear cooperation agreement on Tuesday on the eve of a virtual summit, while Europol and the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) negotiate a working agreement to combat organised crime and terrorism. June 17, 2008: Foreign Minister Pranab Mukherjee meets with Prakash Karat and asks the left to authorize the government to conclude the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) guarantee agreement.
Agreement 123 sets the conditions for bilateral civil nuclear cooperation and requires separate authorizations from the U.S. Congress and cabinet ministers. The agreement will also help India meet its goal of increasing nuclear capacity by 25,000 MW by 2020 through imports of nuclear reactors and fuels.  25 July 2008: The IAEA secretariat informs member states of the Indian-specific safeguard agreement. More than 150 non-proliferation activists and anti-nuclear organizations have called for a strengthening of the initial NST agreement to prevent the current global non-proliferation regime from being undermined.  Among the steps required were: Agreement 123 between the United States of America and the Republic of India is known as a civil nuclear agreement between the United States and India or as an Indo-US nuclear agreement.  The framework of this agreement was a joint statement of 18 July 2005 by the then Indian Prime Minister, Dr. Manmohan Singh, and the then US President, George W. Bush, in which India declared its readiness to separate its civilian and military nuclear facilities and place all its civilian nuclear facilities under the security apparatus of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) , in exchange for which the United States agreed to full civil nuclear cooperation with India.  This agreement between the United States and India lasted more than three years, to enter into force because it had to go through several complex phases, including the modification of U.S.
national legislation, in particular the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, of a civil-military nuclear separation plan in India, an India-IAEA (inspections) agreement and the granting of an exemption to India by the Nuclear Suppliers Group , an export control cartel formed primarily in response to India`s first nuclear test in 1974.