Advanced electronic signature: this is an electronic signature that meets the following requirements (i) it is linked exclusively to the signatory; (ii) it can identify the signatory; (iii) it is based on electronic signature creation data whose high level of security can be used by the signatory under its sole control; (iv) is linked to the signed data so that any further changes to that data can be found. Parties may use eSignatures to sign leases, sales and sales contracts, and other documents that create or transfer an interest in the land4. In all three jurisdictions, eSignatures are often used in residential and commercial real estate transactions. Parties sometimes explicitly agree to export documents electronically and to require that wet signatures be provided after closure. 1 www.canada.ca/en/government/system/digital-government/online-security-privacy/government-canada-guidance-using-electronic-signatures.html In addition to the electronic signatures listed above, the digital management code governs what is known as “digital signature,” a particular type of qualified electronic signature based on a cryptographic key system, including a cryptographic key system, which allows the holder of an electronic signature via the private key and a third party, via the public key, to indicate and verify the origin and integrity of a digital document or set of electronic documents. Before the eIDAS regulation came into force, digital signatures were already used in Italy and is now the most common type of qualified electronic signature in Italy. It should, however, clarify that the eIDAS regulation does not contain this method of perfection and therefore does not benefit the principle of “non-discrimination” of electronic documents at the Community level. Instead, the above elements require a traditional signature of wet ink. Electronic signature is regulated at both EU and national level, in particular: Regardless of the following evidentiary effect, if the act or convention does not require the written form ad substantiam, any form of expression of opinion can be used, including the simplest form of electronic signature. As everyone is working more than ever, but only at home, the parties are turning to technology to close transactions and are considering increasing their use of electronic signature platforms (eSignature) like DocuSign. Qualified electronic signature: it is an electronic signature that meets the same requirements as an advanced electronic signature and is created in addition to (i) by a qualified electronic signature creation device; (ii) it is based on a qualified electronic signature certificate issued by a qualified trusted service provider.