The IPCC notes that climate change is limited only by a “substantial and sustainable reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.” While the benefits of presenting a single global temperature threshold as a dangerous climate change can be discussed, the general scientific view is that an increase in global temperatures of more than 2 degrees Celsius would be an unacceptable risk – potentially leading to mass extinctions, more severe droughts and hurricanes, and an arid region. While it is not clear that global warming will cause “sudden and irreversible changes” in Earth`s systems, the risk of exceeding the threshold only increases if temperatures rise. It will also enable the contracting parties to gradually strengthen their contributions to the fight against climate change in order to achieve the long-term objectives of the agreement. Current greenhouse gas emissions commitments expire in 2020 and the Paris governments should therefore reach agreement on what will happen at least ten years later and possibly beyond. National communication reports often cover several hundred pages and cover a country`s actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, as well as a description of its weaknesses and effects of climate change.  National communications are established in accordance with guidelines adopted by the UNFCCC Conference of Parties. Contributions (planned) at the national level (NDC), which form the basis of the Paris Agreement, are shorter and less detailed, but also follow a standard structure and are subject to technical review by experts. The Paris Agreement is the world`s first comprehensive climate agreement.  Countries most affected by the effects of climate change will be nations deeply vulnerable to sea level rise and developing countries that do not have the resources to adapt to changes in temperature and precipitation.
But prosperous nations like the United States are also increasingly vulnerable. In fact, millions of Americans – especially children, the elderly and the poor – are already suffering from the wrath of climate change.